Urban Designinvolves the design and coordination of all that makes up cities and towns:
Buildings are the most pronounced elements of urban design - they shape and articulate space by forming the streetwalls of the city. Well designed buildings and groups of buildings work together to create a sense of place.
Great public spaces are the living room of the city - the place where people come together to enjoy the city and each other. Public spaces make high quality life in the city possible - they form the stage and backdrop to the drama of life. Public spaces range from grand central plazas and squares, to small, local neighborhood parks.
Streets are the connections between spaces and places, as well as being spaces themselves. They are defined by their physical dimension and character as well as the size, scale, and character of the buildings that line them. Streets range from grand avenues such as the Champs-Elysees in Paris to small, intimate pedestrian streets. The pattern of the street network is part of what defines a city and what makes each city unique.
Transport systems connect the parts of cities and help shape them, and enable movement throughout the city. They include road, rail, bicycle, and pedestrian networks, and together form the total movement system of a city. The balance of these various transport systems is what helps define the quality and character of cities, and makes them either friendly or hostile to pedestrians. The best cities are the ones that elevate the experience of the pedestrian while minimizing the dominance of the private automobile.
The landscape is the green part of the city that weaves throughout - in the form of urban parks, street trees, plants, flowers, and water in many forms. The landscape helps define the character and beauty of a city and creates soft, contrasting spaces and elements. Green spaces in cities range from grand parks such as Central Park in New York City and the Washington DC Mall, to small intimate pocket parks.
Urban Designweaves together these elements into a coherent, organized design structure
The urban design structuredefines the urban form and the building form
The creative articulation of space is the most prominent aspect of urban design. The following artistic principles are an integral part of creating form and spatial definition: